China's Bronze Age began with the Shang Dynasty years ago. The following Shang Dynasty was to be judged by the magnificent bronze-ware from the. The deposition of huge amounts of copper and bronze items is one of the major changes in ritual which distinguishes the European Bronze Age. Datei:mental.nu aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie. Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Datei; Dateiversionen.
Bronze Civilization Dateiverwendung
Die Bronzezeit ist die Periode in der Geschichte der Menschheit, in der Metallgegenstände vorherrschend aus Bronze hergestellt wurden. Diese Epoche umfasst in Mitteleuropa etwa den Zeitraum von bis v. Chr. What would a Bronze-Age world system look like? Relations between temperate Europe and the Mediterranean in later prehistory - Volume 1 Issue 2. In this article, we reason about Bronze Age communication networks and apply the results of use-wear analysis to create robust indicators of the rise and fall of. PDF | White and Hamilton (J World Prehist –97, ) have proposed a model for the origin of the Southeast Asian Bronze Age founded. The Bronze Age: " Bronze & Ancient Civilizations " | Kisak, Edited by Paul F. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und. In the bronze age (3rd -. century B.C.), Orchomenos was famous as important center of the civilization. The deposition of huge amounts of copper and bronze items is one of the major changes in ritual which distinguishes the European Bronze Age.
China's Bronze Age began with the Shang Dynasty years ago. The following Shang Dynasty was to be judged by the magnificent bronze-ware from the. In the bronze age (3rd -. century B.C.), Orchomenos was famous as important center of the civilization. The Bronze Age: " Bronze & Ancient Civilizations " | Kisak, Edited by Paul F. | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und.
Lasting roughly 2. During the Stone An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures and recurring glacial expansion capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years.
Thanks to the efforts of geologist Louis Agassiz and mathematician Milutin Milankovitch, scientists have determined that variations in the The Fertile Crescent is the boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East that was home to some of the earliest human civilizations.
During this era, America became Its history is marked by many important inventions that changed the world, including the concept Syria is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world, with a rich artistic and cultural heritage.
From its ancient roots to its recent political instability and the Syrian Civil War, the country has a complex and, at times, tumultuous history.
Ancient Syria The Neolithic Revolution, also called the Agricultural Revolution, marked the transition in human history from small, nomadic bands of hunter-gatherers to larger, agricultural settlements and early civilization.
The Neolithic Revolution started around 10, B. Live TV. This Day In History. History at Home. Ice Age. Return of the Ice Age.
Iron Age. Early Humans Survive the Ice Age. Stone Age The Stone Age marks a period of prehistory in which humans used primitive stone tools.
Ice Age An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures and recurring glacial expansion capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years.
Fertile Crescent The Fertile Crescent is the boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East that was home to some of the earliest human civilizations.
Syria Syria is home to one of the oldest civilizations in the world, with a rich artistic and cultural heritage. Walls were free-standing or built as supports for baked brick platforms.
Walls around a settlement can, however, have diverse functions and are not only defensive in nature. Walls protected settlements from natural forces such as floods , as well as reinforced platforms and worked as exclusionary devices.
Whatever their function, walls clearly controlled access into and out of the city. Excavations at Mohenjodaro detected massive platforms on both the Citadel and Lower Town that were ostensibly built for flood protection.
These platforms on the Citadel were more than six meters high and on these the various buildings were constructed.
At Harappa, masses of sun-dried brick comprised similar platforms to protect the city from floods. Both categories of architecture, walls and platforms, as also the use of burnt brick for structures, illustrate the extensive utilization of labour in the ancient cities.
On the assumption that a labourer can move about a cubic meter of earth in a day, Gregory Possehl suggested that the Mohenjodaro platforms would have taken about four million days of labour to construct.
That would mean 10, labourers working days or a little over a year. An important implication of the foundations or platforms is that they would have formed part of a plan for a Harappan city before it was built.
Planning of Harappan cities can be physically investigated through the roads and streets, the intersections of which comprise the so-called grid plan.
At Mohenjodaro, the north—south roads First and Second Streets are clearer than the east—west ones Figure 4. Possehl writes that the layout is regular but not perfect.
Other indications of planning can be seen in the provision of civic facilities, such as the extensive system of burnt brick drains that ran along the main avenues of a city connecting public drains with house facilities Figure 5.
Within individual houses, drains were of both horizontal and vertical types, the latter being pipes in the walls. The location of every single house had to be planned to have at least one wall along a lane or street so as to access the street drains.
The provision of sullage pits and manholes, into which solid waste would collect and which would have had to be regularly cleaned, was an important feature of the system.
At sites such as Lothal, where the architecture was mainly of mud-brick, the drains were of baked brick. Evidence of the consciousness to provide civic amenities were also revealed by garbage dumps, one of which was found north of the city of Mohenjodaro.
Wells for drinking water are noted at Mohenjodaro and Harappa. On the basis of the distribution of excavated wells at Mohenjodaro, Michael Jansen calculated that about wells probably existed at the site in antiquity Jansen — These varied in size, with an average diameter of one metre, and most were located within individual houses.
However, wells were often found near entrances, implying that they were accessible to outsiders. At Harappa, the six wells recovered during excavations were all located in public areas.
The high density of wells at Mohenjodaro suggests that the mean distance between wells was quite low. In the Lower Town, the mean distance between wells ranged from 36 to 39 metres, which may also imply that their locations were planned at the outset.
Another aspect of planning in architecture can be seen in the use of bricks with a ratio of Thus, at Mohenjodaro the common size for bricks was 28 x 14 x 7 cm, which were mainly of burnt bricks, while at other sites mud-bricks in the same ratios were used in construction.
Uniformly sized bricks enabled ease of construction. Usually mud mortar was used to bind bricks together while very rarely the use of mud and gypsum or lime and gypsum are noticed.
This alerts us to the possibility that many of the large structures may have had specialised functions. Yet, apart from size, there is often little material within the buildings to indicate their non-residential use.
These seem to have ranged from large-scale storage facilities to places of assembly and ritual. There seem also to have been living arrangements for a very small section of society, perhaps ritual practitioners.
At Rakhigarhi, too, a row of fire altars has been found on a podium or platform on the Citadel. Public space was also taken up by the roads and streets that passed through various settlements.
These were arteries in many cases, allowing access between different parts of the city. This is very clear at Mohenjodaro where the different excavated localities, such as HR or VS  or DK, were in fact connected through the roads and streets.
These roads and streets were also important for providing avenues for the public drains. At Lothal, streets and lanes in the citadel called the Acropolis were paved with mud bricks and covered with a layer of limestone kanker , while those in the lower town had a base of terracotta balls or kanker.
Cemeteries discovered at Harappa, Kalibangan, Lothal, Ropar and Rakhigarhi comprise non-domestic use of space.
However, no cemetery has yet been found at a major settlement such as Mohenjodaro. An implication in the practice of cemeteries involves the keeping aside of space for burials, important particularly in an urban situation, because space would have been at a premium within a city.
At Harappa, the cemetery labelled R 37 is located about m to the south of the high mound AB, while at Kalibangan the cemetery lay about metres west-south-west of the habitation.
Just like these two sites, the cemetery at Lothal too lay outside the walls but about 10 m away and due west of the settlement. At all these three sites, the cemeteries were situated outside the walled areas demarcating the living spaces.
The significance of these burial spaces lay in the clear demarcation between the living and the dead. At the same time it can be seen that it was necessary to allot space outside the settlement, yet not too far away, for the dead.
Public space was used in a strikingly different manner at Dholavira, in Kutch. Here, several massive reservoirs or water storage tanks were constructed along the inner side of the outer wall.
In one case, one of the reservoirs was cut into the bedrock while in another case stone blocks were used in construction. Flights of steps provided access into the reservoirs, which were probably excavated for the storage of rainwater.
At Lothal, a large brick-built tank which held water can be seen immediately to the east of the settlement Figure 7. Yet another enclosure for water, the Great Bath, was constructed at Mohenjodaro, in this case perhaps for ritual purposes.
At Dholavira, another kind of public space has been noted to the north of the Citadel or between the Citadel and the Lower Town. There is plenty of evidence for the domestic use of space, with houses having been recovered at practically every excavated Harappan site.
The considerable variety in house forms within as well as between sites is particularly interesting. Numerous houses at Mohenjodaro were built using the courtyard as an open space generally surrounded by other rooms.
Open spaces may also have been used to separate individual structures or house units as seen from several parts of Mohenjodaro.
Houses at Mohenjodaro were studied by Michael Jansen looking at the placement of their rooms and their means of access.
Thus, entrance rooms were distinguished from transit and terminal rooms. Transit rooms were those with more than one entrance. Terminal rooms were those such as the toilet and bath and had only one entrance Jansen — Classifications on the basis of this kind of access system enabled labelling of rooms as public and private.
In many houses, a second storey could be accessed from one or two sets of stairways, which were always within the house. Most houses had at least one paved room functioning as a bathing area, from where drains connected with the street drains.
Both Harappa and Mohenjodaro, however, were marked by the use of baked brick for housing and public architecture.
But at other settlements, construction was undertaken in what may have been locally available materials such as stone, as at Surkotada. Floors were sometimes paved with mud-bricks and in other cases made of rammed earth or lime and kanker.
Holes in the ground, called as postholes, suggest that posts or poles were embedded in them and used as supports for the roofs which may have been of bamboo or wood.
We do not know whether walls were decorated with paint, but they were definitely plastered with lime. Sometimes, walls of rooms had several niches all along their length perhaps for keeping things.
At cities like Mohenjodaro, large rooms would have been left open or unroofed such as courtyards , as this would have required large wooden beams, or perhaps supported mid-way across the room with wooden pillars.
Much of the light in these houses, in fact, would have come from the open courtyard as outer walls of houses had few windows, which were usually very small.
An interesting feature at Mohenjodaro is the sharing of walls by individual houses. Thus, the western wall of one house may be the eastern wall of the adjacent one.
Houses, thus, form blocks that may have been closely intertwined in more than just physical ways. There would have been interaction among and negotiations between these closely spaced houses, for the repair of one house would have affected its neighbours.
Archaeology throws light on how people lived, what they ate, what they did for a living, what they wore, and other aspects of their everyday lives.
Archaeologists recover burnt seeds that tell us what crops they grew and what cereals and pulses they ate. Bones of animals tell us these were part of the diet too.
Some of these bones are of wild animals that may indicate hunting practices. Fish bones have been recovered in excavations showing that river and also sea fish were part of the diet.
Harappan agriculture provided a well-rounded range of crops with varied cereals, oil and fibre crops. The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt during the 11th Dynasty, began their climb to power in the 13th Dynasty, and emerged from the Second Intermediate Period in control of Avaris and the Delta.
By the 15th Dynasty, they ruled lower Egypt, and they were expelled at the end of the 17th Dynasty. It was Egypt's most prosperous time and marked the peak of Egypt's power.
The later New Kingdom, i. Elam was a pre-Iranian ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Iranian Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it.
This corresponds to level IV at Namazga-Tepe. Altyndepe was a major center even then. Pottery was wheel-turned. Grapes were grown. The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c.
The Kulli culture ,   similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilisation , was located in southern Balochistan Gedrosia c. Agriculture was the economic base of these people.
At several places, dams were found, providing evidence for a highly developed water management system. Konar Sandal is associated with the hypothesized " Jiroft culture ", a 3rd-millennium-BC culture postulated based on a collection of artifacts confiscated in Old Syrian; corresponding to the Middle Bronze.
Middle Syrian; corresponding to the Late Bronze. The term Neo-Syria is used to designate the early Iron Age. The old Syrian period was dominated by the Eblaite first kingdom , Nagar and the Mariote second kingdom.
The Akkadian conquered large areas of the Levant and were followed by the Amorite kingdoms , c. The earliest known Ugaritic contact with Egypt and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, — BC.
However, it is unclear at what time these monuments got to Ugarit. In the Amarna letters , messages from Ugarit c. The Mitanni was a loosely organized state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from c.
Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class that governed a predominantly Hurrian population, Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Kassite Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia.
At its beginning, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite empire, Mitanni and Egypt allied to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination.
At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, it had outposts centered on its capital, Washukanni , which archaeologists have located on the headwaters of the Khabur River.
Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite, and later Assyrian attacks, and was reduced to a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. The Israelites were an ancient Semitic-speaking people of the Ancient Near East who inhabited part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods 15th to 6th centuries BC ,      and lived in the region in smaller numbers after the fall of the monarchy.
The name "Israel" first appears c. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia, where they intermingled with the native Akkadian Assyrian and Babylonian population.
The Aramaeans never had a unified empire; they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. After the Bronze Age collapse, their political influence was confined to many Syro-Hittite states, which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC.
Instead, a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people.
The Akkadian Empire — BC became the dominant power in the region, and after its fall the Sumerians enjoyed a renaissance with the Neo-Sumerian Empire.
Assyria was extant from as early as the 25th century BC, and became a regional power with the Old Assyrian Empire c. The earliest mention of Babylon then a small administrative town appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC.
The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC. Over years later, it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the short-lived First Babylonian Empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.
Akkad, Assyria, and Babylonia all used the written East Semitic Akkadian language for official use and as a spoken language.
By that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use in Assyria and Babylonia, and would remain so until the 1st century AD.
The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Assyrian and Babylonian culture, even though Babylonia unlike the more militarily powerful Assyria itself was founded by non-native Amorites and often ruled by other non-indigenous peoples, such as Kassites , Arameans and Chaldeans , as well as its Assyrian neighbors.
Its sites were discovered and named by the Soviet archaeologist Viktor Sarianidi The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon.
In China, the earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site between and BC. The term "Bronze Age" has been transferred to the archaeology of China from that of Western Eurasia, and there is no consensus or universally used convention delimiting the "Bronze Age" in the context of Chinese prehistory.
By convention, the "Early Bronze Age" in China is sometimes taken as equivalent to the " Shang dynasty " period of Chinese prehistory 16th to 11th centuries BC ,  and the "Later Bronze Age" as equivalent to the " Zhou dynasty " period 11th to 3rd centuries BC, from the 5th century, also dubbed " Iron Age " , although there is an argument to be made that the "Bronze Age" proper never ended in China, as there is no recognizable transition to an "Iron Age".
Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou Wade—Giles : Erh-li-t'ou period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.
The widespread use of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture dates to significantly later, probably due to Western influence. While there may be a reason to believe that bronze work developed inside China separately from outside influence,  the discovery of Europoid mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West beginning in the early second millennium BC.
A few human mummies alone cannot provide sufficient explanation of metallurgy transmission. Furthermore, the oldest bronze objects found in China so far were discovered at the Majiayao site in Gansu rather than Xinjiang .
While some direct information about the Shang dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones — which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.
Iron is found from the Zhou dynasty , but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.
White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty BC " and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels through the Later Han period , or to BC [ sic?
The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes" , which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons.
Examples are the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese; there are many other distinct shapes. Surviving identified Chinese ritual bronzes tend to be highly decorated, often with the taotie motif, which involves highly stylized animal faces.
These appear in three main motif types: those of demons, of symbolic animals, and abstract symbols. The bronzes of the Western Zhou dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class.
Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts. Bronze artifacts from Daegok-ri, Hwasun , Korea.
The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around — BC. The Mumun pottery period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially — BC.
The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago.
The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production c. BC after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula c.
The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centers such as the Igeum-dong site.
Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until Bronze and iron smelting techniques spread to the Japanese archipelago through contact with other ancient East Asian civilizations, particularly immigration and trade from the Korean peninsula and ancient Mainland China.
Iron was mainly used for agricultural and other tools, whereas ritual and ceremonial artifacts were mainly made of bronze. Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans , developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin.
The Late Harappan culture, which dates from — BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.
It has been claimed that a 6, year old copper amulet manufactured in Mehrgarh in the shape of wheel spoke is the earliest example of lost wax casting in the world.
Dating is still currently broad — BC. Ban Chiang, however, is the most thoroughly documented site while having the clearest evidence of metallurgy when it comes to Southeast Asia.
With a rough date range of late 3rd millennium BC to the first millennium AD, this site alone has various artifacts such as burial pottery dating from — BC , fragments of Bronze, copper-base bangles, and much more.
What's interesting about this site, however, isn't just the old age of the artifacts but the fact that this technology suggested on-site casting from the very beginning.
The on-site casting supports the theory that Bronze was first introduced in Southeast Asia as fully developed which therefore shows that Bronze was innovated from a different country.
These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam. Archaeological research in Northern Vietnam indicates an increase in rates of infectious disease following the advent of metallurgy; skeletal fragments in sites dating to the early and mid-Bronze Age evidence a greater proportion of lesions than in sites of earlier periods.
The other one is decreased levels of immunocompetence in the Metal age due to changes in the diet caused by agriculture.
The last is that there may have been an emergence of infectious disease in the Da But the period that evolved into a more virulent form in the metal period.
The production of complex tin bronzes lasted for c. The authors reported that evidence for the production of such complex bronzes disappears at the end of the 5th millennium coinciding with the "collapse of large cultural complexes in north-eastern Bulgaria and Thrace in the late fifth millennium BC".
Tin bronzes using cassiterite tin would be reintroduced to the area again some years later. The Aegean Bronze Age began around BC, when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network.
This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus , where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze.
Bronze objects were then exported far and wide and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of tin in some Mediterranean bronze artifacts suggests that they may have originated from Great Britain.
Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time and reached a peak of skill not exceeded except perhaps by Polynesian sailors until when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude.
The Minoan civilization based in Knossos on the island of Crete appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age.
Ancient empires valued luxury goods in contrast to staple foods , leading to famine. Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Bronze Age in this region.
At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region, the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy.
This would indicate that the trade network may have failed, preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition.
It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire, the area north of the Black Sea , also suddenly lost much of its population, and thus probably some capacity to cultivate crops.
The Aegean collapse has been attributed to the exhaustion of the Cypriot forests causing the end of the bronze trade. The Aegean collapse has also been attributed to the fact that as iron tools became more common, the main justification for the tin trade ended, and that trade network ceased to function as it did formerly.
The Thera eruption occurred c. Speculation includes that a tsunami from Thera more commonly known today as Santorini destroyed Cretan cities.
If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC as most chronologists now think then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition, and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age, but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall.
If this expertise was concentrated in Crete, then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.
Archaeological findings, including some on the island of Thera, suggest that the center of the Minoan civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete.
A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to conquest.
Indeed, the Santorini eruption is usually dated to c. Some very rich burials, such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold, point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture.
All in all, cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age — BC Tumulus culture , which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli barrows.
In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries, the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture , followed by the Otomani and Gyulavarsand cultures.
Important sites include:. The Apennine culture also called Italian Bronze Age is a technology complex of central and southern Italy spanning the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age proper.
The Camuni were an ancient people of uncertain origin according to Pliny the Elder , they were Euganei ; according to Strabo , they were Rhaetians who lived in Val Camonica — in what is now northern Lombardy — during the Iron Age , although human groups of hunters, shepherds and farmers are known to have lived in the area since the Neolithic.
They take their name from the characteristic Nuragic towers, which evolved from the pre-existing megalithic culture, which built dolmens and menhirs.
The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best-preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. Their effective use is still debated: some scholars considered them as monumental tombs, others as Houses of the Giants , other as fortresses, ovens for metal fusion, prisons or, finally, temples for a solar cult.
From this region, they reached Malta island and other countries of Mediterranean basin. The Terramare was an early Indo-European civilization in the area of what is now Pianura Padana northern Italy before the arrival of the Celts and in other parts of Europe.